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Heart Diseases and Abnormalities

Heart diseases include various conditions that affect the structure and function of the heart. While some occur as birth defects, others can develop by following an unhealthy lifestyle. Some of the common heart diseases and abnormalities include:

  • Atherosclerosis: Formation of clot in blood vessels
  • Aneurysm: Abnormal bulging of the blood vessels
  • Coronary artery disease (CAD): Hardening of the arteries that supply oxygen and nutrients to the heart muscles
  • Heart attack (myocardial infarction): Damage to heart muscles due to blockage of blood vessels supplying it
  • Stroke: reduced or lack of blood flow to the brain
  • High blood pressure (hypertension): Excessive pressure against the walls of the arteries causing the heart to pump harder
  • Arrhythmia: Irregular beating of the heart
  • Atrial fibrillation: Irregular and rapid beating of the heart
  • Mitral valve prolapse: Leaky mitral valve (flaps of skin that control the one-way direction of blood flow from left aorta to left ventricle)
  • Aortic stenosis: Narrowed opening of the aortic valve (valve between the heart and the main vessel supplying blood to the body)
  • Mitral insufficiency or mitral regurgitation: Mitral valve does not close tightly
  • Congenital heart disease: Abnormalities in the structure of the heart, such as defects in the valves (atresia), wall separating the heart chambers (atrial and ventricular septal defect) and heart muscles (cardiac hypertrophy), that develop at birth
  • Cardiomyopathy: Abnormal thickening, enlargement, and/or stiffening of heart, which weakens the heart muscles
  • Pericarditis: Infection and inflammation of the heart’s lining
  • Atrial Flutter: A condition characterized by atrial rates of 250-400 and often decreased cardiac output.
  • Sick Sinus Syndrome: Also known as sinus node dysfunction is a type of heart rhythm abnormality where the sinus node, the natural pacemaker of the heart, is damaged or does not work appropriately.
  • Sinus Tachycardia: A condition characterized by faster than normal heart rate [greater than 100 beats/min (bpm)in a normal adult] caused by an abnormality in the electrical signals transmitted across the heart tissues.
  • Ventricular Fibrillation (VF): Also known as v-fib is a cardiac rhythm abnormality where the lower chambers of the heart contract rapidly in a nonsynchronous pattern.
  • Premature Ventricular Contractions: Also known as PVCs occur earlier than normal heartbeats and disrupt the heart rhythm.
  • Long QT Syndrome (LQTS): A congenital disorder of the heart characterized by prolonged QT interval causing fast and disorderly heartbeats.
  • Heart Block: An abnormality in the heart’s electrical system (the system that governs the rate and rhythm of heartbeats) that occurs when an electrical signal is slowed or interrupted as it travels through the heart.
  • Syncope (Fainting): Temporary loss of consciousness, also known as passing out, that occurs when the heart does not pump normal quantities of oxygen rich blood to the brain.
  • Heart Failure: A condition where the heart fails to pump blood in order to maintain the metabolic needs of the body. In most cases, heart failure is a chronic, long-standing and ongoing condition but it can develop suddenly.
  • Heart Valve Problems: The heart has four valves, namely the tricuspid valve, pulmonary valve, mitral valve, and aortic valve. These valves have flaps that open and close with each heartbeat and keep blood flowing in the appropriate direction. Any abnormality in these valves can disrupt the flow of blood through the chambers of the heart and the rest of the body.

The cardiologists at NMC Heartcare are specialized in offering all types of treatments for heart diseases and their abnormalities. For more information on these diseases and your treatment options, please contact NMC Heartcare.

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